The key thing i understand about authority is that. Authority is only exist becouse in organization each and every person have responsibility of one or multiple task and the one who has most experience and who is highly paid for that has more responsibility. and to fullfill his responsibility he need total cooperation of people. and to achive that he has been assigned some level of authorities.
As far as I understand any Tech/Engineering based organization following department mostly exist in almost all of the organization and each have their responsibility.
this is exist because each and every organization have their own goal/aim/vision as well as purpose. and people who are members of this department are responsible for defining what must to do and where should now organization flow must go on with spirit.
2. Sales/Marketing with Account:-
this exist because every organization need to define their market/social value to achive their goal/aim/vision and so first what should be product/services`s cost that must be defined and one which class of socity/market this product is going to make impact and how much big ipact this product could do at what level of depth. once this research has been done Sales/Marketing stratagy along with bussiness model should be defined.
3. Tech and Support / Operations.:-
this exist because none of the vision/goal/aim or purpose could be achieved without particular technologies (If tech/engineering based organization) and this is highly special skilled job. so to define new solution strong team of technical people is most necessary thing. so this department is necessary for How or which way goal/purpose/aim or vision is going to get achieved.
so in moderan corporate organization i belief that responsibility has been distributed properly but what making me harsh is how authority has been distributed. all the authorities except recruiting staff based on specialization has been centralized and have in hand of Head of Management/Administrative/Executive department. each and every organization `s any decision that is good for organization`s progress must be passed through management. all the rules and regulation that is good for only one department and bad for other still followed by all department.
and still if any department work is not get done propperly than responsible person is Head of that Perticular department. I know there will be time of conflict where two department head will be against eachother point. but for that management/executive/administrative department just need to be mediator to solve their conflict by defining priority and effectiveness. there is no need to keep all the authority to centralize.
and ofcourse i am not stating here that Head of Administrative/Executive/Management should not have authority to fire or analyze all the department. he/she must have rights for firing any head person of that perticular department. but why all the authorities have been centralized for MD/CEO/Executive director or Chairman.
isn't this bureaucratism is hazardous for organization in sense of acheaving its goal/vision/aim or purpose.